2.0010 – PURPOSE
The purpose of this section is to safeguard life, limb, property and the public welfare by regulating grading on private property.
2.0020 – SCOPE
This section sets forth rules and regulations to control excavation, grading and earthwork construction, including fills and embankments; establishes the administrative procedure for issuance of permits; and provides for approval of plans and inspection of grading construction.
The standards listed below are guideline standards and as such are not adopted as part of this code.
A. ASTM D 1557, Moisture-density Relations of Soils and Soil Aggregate Mixtures
B. ASTM D 1556, In Place Density of Soils by the Sand-Cone Method
C. ASTM D 2167, In Place Density of Soils by the Rubber-Balloon Method
D. ASTM D 2937, In Place Density of Soils by the Drive-Cylinder Method
E. ASTM D 2922 and D 3017, In Place Moisture Contact and Density of Soils by Nuclear Methods.
2.0030 – PERMITS REQUIRED
a. Permits Required. Except as specified in Subsection (b) of this section, no person shall do any grading without first having obtained a grading permit from the City.
b. Exempted Work. A grading permit is not required for the following:
1. When approved by the Public Works Director, grading in an isolated, self-contained area if there is no danger to private or public property.
2. An excavation below finished grade for basements and footings of a building, retaining wall or other structure authorized by a valid building permit. This shall not exempt any fill made with the material from such excavation or exempt any excavation having an unsupported height greater than 5 feet after the completion of such structure.
3. Cemetery graves.
4. Refuse disposal sites controlled by other regulations.
5. Excavations for wells or tunnels or utilities.
6. Mining, quarrying, excavating, processing, stockpiling of rock, sand, gravel, aggregate or clay where established and provided for by law, provided such operations do not affect the lateral support or increase the stresses in or pressure upon any adjacent or contiguous property.
7. Exploratory excavations under the direction of soil engineers or engineering geologists.
8. An excavation which (1) is less than 2 feet in depth, or (2) which does not create a cut slope greater than 5 feet in height and steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical and is less than 50 cubic yards.
9. A fill less than 1 foot in depth and placed on natural terrain with a slope flatter than 5 horizontal to 1 vertical, or less than 3 feet in depth, not intended to support structures, which does not exceed 50 cubic yards on any one lot and does not obstruct a drainage course.
Exemption from the permit requirements of this chapter shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this chapter or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction, or of county, state or federal jurisdictions.
2.0040 – HAZARDS
Whenever the Public Works Director determines that any existing excavation or embankment or fill on private property has become a hazard to life and limb, or endangers property, or adversely affects the safety, use or stability of a public way or drainage channel, the owner of the property upon which the excavation or fill is located, or other person or agent in control of said property, upon receipt of notice in writing from the Public Works Director, shall within the period specified therein repair or eliminate such excavation or embankment so as to eliminate the hazard and be in conformance with the requirements of this code.
2.0050 – DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this section the definitions listed hereunder shall be construed as specified in this section.
APPROVAL – shall mean the proposed work or completed work conforms to this chapter in the opinion Note opinions don’t count of the Public Works Director.
AS-GRADED – is the extent of the surface conditions on completion of grading.
BEDROCK – is in-place solid rock.
BENCH – is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be place.
BORROW – is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use in grading on a site.
CIVIL ENGINEER – is a professional engineer registered in the state to practice in the field of civil works.
COMPACTION – is the densification of a fill by mechanical means.
EARTH MATERIAL – is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination thereof.
ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST – is a geologist must have Oregon State License in engineering geology. Is a geologist experienced and knowledgeable in engineering geology.
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY – is the application of geologic knowledge and principles in the investigation and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use in the design of civil works.
EROSION – is the wearing away of the ground surface as result of the movement of wind, water or ice
EXCAVATION – is the mechanical removal of earth material.
EXISTING – grade is the grade prior to grading.
FINISH – grade is the final grade of the site, which conforms to the approved plan.
FILL – is the deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER – See “soils engineer.”
GRADE – is the vertical location of the ground surface.
GRADING – is any excavating or filling or combination thereof.
KEY – is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope.
PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION – is the inspection required by this code to be performed by the civil engineer, soils engineer or engineering geologist. Such inspections include that performed by persons supervised by such engineers or geologists and shall be sufficient to form an opinion relating to the conduct of the work.
ROUGH – grade is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan.
SITE – is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where grading is performed or permitted.
SLOPE – is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.
SOIL – is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying bedrock.
SOILS ENGINEER (GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER) – is an engineer experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of soils engineering (GEOTECHNICAL) engineering.
SOILS ENGINEERING (GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING) – is the application of the principles of soils mechanics in the investigation, evaluation and design of civil works involving the use of earth materials and the inspection or testing of the construction thereof.
TERRACE – is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes.
2.0060 – GRADING PERMIT REQUIREMENTS
a. Permits Required. Except as exempted in Section 2.0030(b) of this code, no person shall do any grading without first obtaining a grading permit from the Public Works Director. A separate permit shall be obtained for each site, and may cover both excavations and fills.
b. Application. The provisions of Section 2.0030(a) are applicable to grading and in addition the application shall state the estimated quantities of work involved.
c. Grading Designation. Grading in excess of 5,000 cubic yards or grading which involves fill to support structures, shall be performed in accordance with the approved grading plan prepared by a civil engineer, and shall be designated as “engineered grading.” Grading involving less than 5,000 cubic yards shall be designated “regular grading” unless the permittee chooses to have the grading performed as engineered grading, or the Public Works Director determines that special conditions or unusual hazards exist, in which case grading shall conform to the requirements for engineered grading.
d. Engineered Grading Requirements. Application for a grading permit shall be accompanied by two sets of plans and specifications, and supporting data consisting of a soils engineering report and engineering geology report. The plans and specifications shall be prepared and signed by an individual licensed by the state to prepare such plans or specifications when required by the building official.
Specifications shall contain information covering construction and material requirements.
Plans shall be prepared in accordance with Section 1.0000 of this document and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the work proposed and shown in detail that they will conform to the provisions of this code and all relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations. The first sheet of each set of plans shall give location of the work, the names and address of the owner and the person by whom they were prepared.
The plans shall include the following information:
1. General vicinity of the proposed site.
2. Property limits and accurate contours of existing ground and details of terrain and area drainage.
3. Limiting dimensions elevations or finish contours to be achieved by the grading, and proposed drainage channels and related construction.
4. Detailed plans of all surface and subsurface drainage devices, wall, cribbing, dams and other protective devices to be constructed with, or as a part of, the proposed work together with a map showing the drainage area and the estimated runoff of the area served by any drain.
5. Locations of any building or structures on the property where the work is to be performed and the location of any buildings or structures on land of adjacent owners which are within 15 feet of the property or which may be affected by the proposed grading operations.
6. Recommendations included in the soils engineering report and the engineering geology report shall be incorporated in the grading plans or specifications. When approved by the City Engineer, specific recommendations contained in the soils engineering report and the engineering geology report, which are applicable to grading, may be included by reference.
7. The dates of the soils engineering and engineering geology reports together with the names, addresses and phone numbers of the firms or individuals who prepared the reports.
e. Soils Engineering Report. The soils engineering report required by Subsection (d) shall include data regarding the water table, the nature, distribution and strength of existing soils, conclusions and recommendations for grading procedures and design criteria for corrective measures, including buttress fills, when necessary, and opinion on adequacy for the intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed grading as affected by soils engineering factors, including the stability of slopes.
f. Engineering Geology Report. The engineering geology report required by Subsection (d) shall include adequate a description of the geology of the site, conclusions and recommendations regarding the effect of geologic conditions on the proposed development, and opinion on the adequacy for the intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed grading, as affected by geologic factors.
g. Regular Grading Requirements. Each application for a grading permit shall be accompanied by a plan in sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the work. The plans shall give the location of the work, the names of the owner and the name of the person who prepared the plan. The plan shall include the following information:
1. General vicinity of the proposed site.
2. Limiting dimensions and depth of cut and fill.
3. Location of any buildings or structures where work is to be performed, and the location of any buildings or structures within 15 feet of the proposed grading.
4. An engineering soils and geology report may be required by the City depending upon site conditions such as steep slopes, evidence of slippage or slides, high ground water, location of improvements, geologic conditions, etc.
h. Issuance. The provisions of Section 7.0000 are applicable to grading permits. The Public Works Director may require that grading operations and project designs be modified if delays occur which incur weather-generated problems not considered at the time the permit was issued.
The Public Works Director will require professional inspection and testing by the soils engineer. When the Public Works Director has caused to believe that geologic factors may be involved, the grading will be required to conform to engineered grading.
2.0080 – BONDS
The Public Works Director will require bonds in such form and amounts as (may be) deemed necessary to assure that the work, if not completed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications, will be corrected to eliminate hazardous conditions.
In lieu of a surety bond the applicant may file a cash bond or instrument of credit with the City in an amount equal to that which would be required in the surety bond.
2.0090 – CUTS
a. General. Unless otherwise recommended in the approved soils engineering or engineering geology report, cuts shall conform to the provisions of this section.
In the absence of an approved soils engineering report, these provisions may be waived for minor cuts not intended to support structures.
b. Slope. The slope of cut surfaces shall be no steeper than is safe for the intended use and shall be no steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical unless the permittee furnishes a soils engineering or a engineering geology report, or both, stating that the site has been investigated and giving an opinion that a cut at a steeper slope will be stable and not create a hazard to public or private property.
2.0100 – FILLS
a. General. Unless otherwise recommended in the approved soils engineering report, fills shall conform to the provisions of this section.
In the absence of an approved soils engineering report, these provisions may be waived for minor fills not intended to support structures.
b. Preparation of Ground. Fill slopes shall not be constructed on natural slopes steeper than 2:1. The ground surface shall be prepared to receive fill by removing vegetation, noncomplying fill, topsoil and other unsuitable material scarifying to provide a bond with the new fill and, where slopes are steeper than 5:1 and the height is greater than five (5) feet, by benching into sound bedrock or other competent material as determined by the soils engineer. The bench under the toe of a fill on a slope steeper than 5:1 shall be at least ten (10) feet wide. The area beyond the toe of fill shall be sloped for sheet overflow or a paved drain shall be provided. When fill is to be placed over a cut, the bench under the toe of fill shall be at least ten (10) feet wide but the cut shall be made before placing the fill and acceptance by the soils engineer or engineering geologist or both as a suitable foundation for fill.
c. Fill Material. Organic material shall not be permitted in fills. Except as permitted by the Public Works Director, no rock or similar irreducible material with a maximum dimension greater than twelve (12) inches shall be buried or placed in fills.
Exception: The Public Works Director may permit placement of larger rock when the soils engineer properly devises a method of placement, and continuously inspects its placement and approves the fill stability. The following conditions shall also apply:
1. Prior to issuance of the grading permit, potential rock disposal areas shall be delineated on the grading plan.
2. Rock sizes greater than twelve (12) inches in maximum dimension shall be ten (10) feet or more below grade, measured vertically.
3. Rocks shall be placed so as to assure filling of all voids with well-graded soil.
d. Compaction. All fills shall be compacted to a minimum of 90 percent of maximum density per ASTM D-1557, unless Geotech report suggests a denser compaction.
e. Slope. The slope of fill surfaces shall be no steeper than is safe for the intended use. Fill slopes shall be no steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.
2.0110 – SETBACKS
a. General. Cut and fill slopes shall be set back from site boundaries in accordance with this section. Setback dimensions shall be horizontal distances measured perpendicular to the site boundary. Setback dimensions shall be as shown in Figure No. 2-1.
b. Top of Cut Slope. The top of cut slope shall not be made nearer to a site boundary line than one fifth of the vertical height of cut with a minimum of 2 feet and a maximum of 20 feet. Where a fill slope is to be located near the site boundary and the adjacent off-site property is developed, special precautions shall be incorporated in the work as the Public Works Director deems necessary to protect the adjoining property from damage as a result of such grading. These precautions may include but are not limited to:
1. Additional setbacks.
2. Provision for retaining or slough walls.
3. Mechanical or chemical treatment or the fill slope surface to minimize erosion.
4. Provisions for the control of surface waters.
d. Modification of Slope Location. The City Engineer may approve alternate setbacks; and may require an investigation and recommendation by a qualified engineer or engineering geologist to demonstrate that the intent of this section has been satisfied.
2.0120 – DRAINAGE AND TERRACING
a. General. Unless otherwise indicated on the approved grading plan, drainage facilities and terracing shall conform to the provisions of this section for cut or fill slopes steeper than 3 horizontal to 1 vertical.
b. Terrace. Terraces at least 6 feet in width shall be established at not more than 30-foot vertical intervals on all cut or fill slopes to control surface drainage and debris except that where only one terrace is required, it shall be at mid-height. For cut or fill slopes greater than 60 feet and up to 120 feet in vertical height, one terrace at approximately mid-height shall be 12 feet in width. Terrace widths and spacing for cut and fill slopes greater than 120 feet in height shall be designed by the civil engineer and approved by the Public Works Director. Suitable access shall be provided to permit proper cleaning and maintenance.
Swales or ditches on terraces shall have a minimum gradient of 5 percent and must be paved with reinforced concrete not less than 3 inches in thickness or an approved equal paving. They shall have a minimum depth at the deepest point of 1 foot and a minimum paved width of 5 feet.
A single run of swale or ditch shall not collect runoff from a tributary area exceeding 13,500 square feet (projected) without discharging into a down drain.
c. Subsurface Drainage. Cut and fill slopes shall be provided with subsurface drainage as necessary for stability.
d. Disposal. All drainage facilities shall be designed to carry waters to the nearest practicable drainage way approved by the Public Works Director or other appropriate jurisdiction as a safe place to deposit such water, erosion of ground in the area of discharge shall be prevented by installation of non-corrosive down drains or other devices.
Building pads shall have a drainage gradient of 2 percent toward approved drainage facilities, unless waived by the Public Works Director.
Exception: The gradient from the building pad may be 1 percent if all of the following conditions exist throughout the permit area:
1. No proposed fills are greater than 10 feet in maximum depth.
2. No proposed finish cut or fill slope faces have a vertical height in excess of 10 feet.
3. No existing slope faces, which have a slope face steeper than 10 horizontal to 1 vertical, have a vertical height in excess of 10 feet.
e. Interceptor Drains. Paved interceptor drains shall be installed along the top of all cut slopes where the tributary drainage area above slopes toward the cut and has a drainage path greater than 40 feet measured horizontally. Interceptor drains shall be paved with a minimum of 3 inches of concrete or gunite and reinforced. They shall have a minimum depth of 12 inches and minimum paved width of 30 inches measured horizontally across the drain. The slope of drain shall be approved by the city official.
2.0130 – EROSION CONTROL
a. Slopes. The faces of cut and fill slopes shall be prepared and maintained to control against erosion. This control may consist of effective planting, matting or covering. The protection for the slopes shall be installed as soon as practicable and prior to calling for final approval. Where cut slopes are not subject to erosion due to the erosion-resistant character of the materials, such protection may be omitted.
b. Other Devices. Where necessary, check dams, cribbing, rip-rap or other devices or methods shall be employed to control erosion and provide safety.
c. Construction. Temporary erosion control facilities shall be used to protect against erosion during construction. See Section 3.0050 for requirements.
2.0140 – GRADING INSPECTION
a. General. Grading operations for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the city. Professional inspection of grading operations shall be provided by the civil engineer, soil engineer and the engineering geologist retained to provide such services in accordance with Section 2.0140 (e) for engineered grading and as required by the city for regular grading.
b. Civil Engineer. The civil engineer shall provide professional inspection within such engineer’s area of technical specialty, which shall consist of observation and review as to the establishment of line, grade and surface drainage of the development area. If revised plans are required during the course of the work they shall be prepared by the civil engineer.
Soils Engineer. The soils engineer shall provide professional inspection within such engineer’s area of technical specialty, which shall include observation during grading and testing for required. compaction. The soils engineer shall provide sufficient observation during the preparation of the natural ground and placement and compaction of the fill to verify that such work is being performed in accordance with the conditions of the approved plan and the appropriate requirements of this chapter. Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing from the approved soils engineering and engineering geology reports shall be submitted to the permittee, the city inspector and the civil engineer inspectors
d. Engineering Geologist. The engineering geologist shall provide professional inspection within such engineer’s area of technical specialty, which shall include professional inspection of the bedrock excavation to determine if conditions encountered are in conformance with the approved report, revised recommendations relating to conditions differing from the approved engineering geology report shall be submitted to the soils engineer.
e. Permittee. The permittee shall be responsible for the work to be performed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications and in conformance with the provisions of this code, and the permittee shall engage consultants, if required, to provide professional inspections on a timely basis. The permittee shall act as a coordinator between the consultants, the contractor and the city inspector. In the event of changed conditions, the permittee shall be responsible for informing the city inspector of such change and shall provide revised plans for approval.
City inspector. The city inspector shall inspect the project at the various stages of work requiring approval to determine that adequate control is being exercised by the professional consultants. City Inspector will sign the plans as being completed during each stage of completed work.
Notification of Noncompliance. If, in the course of fulfilling their respective duties under this chapter. The civil engineer, the soils engineer or the engineering geologist finds that the work is not being done in conformance with this chapter or the approved grading plans, the discrepancies shall be reported immediately in writing to the permittee and to the city inspector.
h. Timely Basis. Is determined by permittee before start of job with each portion of job clearly defined by a time line as to completion of that segment of the job.
i. Transfer of Responsibility. If the civil engineer, the soils engineer, or the engineering geologist of record is changed during grading, the work shall be stopped until the replacement has agreed in writing to accept their responsibility within the area of technical competence for approval upon completion of the work.
It shall be the duty of the permittee to notify the city inspector in writing of such change prior to the recommencement of such grading. City Inspector must sign off on each portion of job before job can continue.
2.0150 – COMPLETION OF WORK;
a. Final Reports. Upon completion of the rough grading work and at the final completion of the work, the following reports and drawings and supplements thereto are required for engineered grading or when professional inspection is performed for regular grading, as applicable.
1. An as-built grading plan prepared by the civil engineer retained to provide such service in accordance with Section 7014 (e) showing original ground surface elevations, as-graded ground surface elevations, lot drainage patterns, and the locations and elevations of surface drainage facilities and of the outlets of subsurface drains. As-constructed locations, elevations and details of subsurface drains shall be shown as reported by the soils engineer.
Civil engineers shall submit a statement that to the best of their knowledge the work within their area of responsibility was done in accordance with the final approved grading plan.
2. A report prepared by the soils engineer retained to provide such services in accordance with Section 7014 (c), including locations and elevations of field density test, summaries of field and laboratory test, other substantiating data, and comments on any changes made during grading and their effect on the recommendations made in the approved soils engineering investigation report. Soils engineers shall submit a statement that, to the best of their knowledge, the work within their area of responsibilities is in accordance with the approved soils engineering report and applicable provisions of this chapter.
3. A report prepared by the engineering geologist retained to provide such services in accordance with Section 7014 (e), including a final description of the geology of the site and any new information disclosed during the grading and the effect of same on recommendations incorporated in the approved grading plan. Engineering geologists shall submit a statement that, to the best of their knowledge, the work within their area or responsibility is in accordance with the approved engineering geologist report and applicable provisions of this chapter.
4. The grading contractor shall submit in a form prescribed by the city inspector in a statement of conformance to said as-built plan and the specifications.
b. Notification of Completion. The permittee shall notify the city inspector when the grading operation is ready for final inspection. Final approval shall not be given until all work, including installation of all drainage facilities and their protective devices, and all erosion-control measures have been completed in accordance with the approved grading plan, and the required reports have been submitted.
Glendale Design Standards 2-10 March 2003